Hacienda La Esperanza brings you a collection of 13 chronologies written by different authors. You can purchase the complete collection or choose the ones that interest you the most.
The collection includes:
1.0 Cartography - This pamphlet collects the chronology of cartography at Hacienda La Esperanza. Here you will find several maps of Puerto Rico throughout history, including a map from 1545 when the name of our islands was San Juan Bautista. All the maps in this pamphlet are accompanied by a description and their history.
2.0 Indigenous Archaeology - This chronology of indigenous archaeology traces the presence of human culture in La Esperanza from the so-called pre-ceramic peoples to the development of what we know as the Taino culture. Thousands of years ago, the arrival of these peoples from Central America gave rise to the evolution of a structured social organization, which is evidenced by the presence of human remains, tools, ceremonial items, and food remains. La Esperanza carries this rich history of our ancestors.
3.0 Hacienda La Esperanza Natural Reserve - The history of Hacienda La Esperanza in Manatí is full of very important historical facts. During the 16th century, an indigenous village called Yamanuatabón was found on the banks of the Manatí River, which years later would become Hacienda La Esperanza. In this pamphlet, you will find important information about the Marquis of the Hacienda, the role of slavery in its development, and its eventual evolution to a historic zone today.
4.0 Crabs - Crabs have historically been a source of food for our population from the 18th and 19th centuries to the present day. In 1825 the common crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) was first described by French entomologist Pierre André Latreille. Since 1930, these crustaceans have been of great commercial importance in Puerto Rico. However, in the 1990s and 2000s, restrictions and laws had to be developed and implemented to protect this population of crabs.
5.0 Hydrology - In this chronology, you will find a historical tour of the study of water in Puerto Rico. The narrative begins 60 million years ago with the formation of Puerto Rico and goes through the cultures that inhabited our islands and how they used water. It also summarizes the significant change that deforestation had with the arrival of the Spaniards and how that changed the water systems in our land.
6.0 Bats - This bat chronology compiles data from millions of years ago about the creation of the cave systems that provide shelter for bats. It then traces the historical migration of these mammals to Puerto Rico from Mexico, Nicaragua, Venezuela, and the state of Florida. The pamphlet includes information about the laws that have been established in Puerto Rico to protect the caves and, in turn, the bats.
7.0 Fauna - In this pamphlet about the fauna of Puerto Rico, you will see a summary of the history of the different animals that have inhabited our land. You will find data from 20,000 years B.C. to 1999. The pamphlet functions as a list of extinct species and foreign species introduced to the islands of Puerto Rico and highlight their most important characteristics. It also includes a summary of the main causes of the extinction of these species.
8.0 Flora - In this chronology of the flora of Puerto Rico, you will learn a little about the history of our fruits and trees. The pamphlet gathers information dating from 50 million years ago when the first plants and animals began to appear in the islands. This history also includes the arrival of seeds and plants from Spain during the colonizing process. The chronology concludes with the creation of the Department of Natural and Environmental Resources of Puerto Rico.
9.0 Slavery and African Heritage - The chronology of slavery and African heritage briefly narrates important moments in the history of slavery in America. The pamphlet recounts the dates of the abolition of slavery in various countries such as Great Britain, Chile, Mexico, Jamaica, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Also included is a summary of the abolitionist struggle in Puerto Rico, led by José Julián Acosta, Segundo Ruiz Belvis and Francisco Mariano Quiñones.
10.0 Communities - In this pamphlet, you will find the history of the communities surrounding Hacienda La Esperanza. Since 1847 there have been settlements in Hacienda La Esperanza; by that year, medium-sized landowners located there occupied 84% of the land. From then on, the communities grew and grew until they had their own school. As of 2007, there is a record of families still living in these communities who are descendants of those first inhabitants.
11.0 Marqués de La Esperanza - The Marqués de la Esperanza was a very prominent figure in Puerto Rico during the 19th century. His name was José Ramón Demetrio Fernández and he was born on December 22, 1804. The marquis held multiple important positions such as Prior of the Court of Commerce, City Hall Corrector, and was the first elected mayor of the city of San Juan.
12.0 Science of Steam - This pamphlet covers the chronology of the science of steam from its beginnings with the construction of the first steam pump, at the hands of the Marquis of Worcester in 1633. After that, it recounts the contributions of various scientists between 1798 and 1871, and finally the emergence of competition.
13.0 Sugar Cane - This chronology lists the historical data on sugar cane from its first cultivation in Southeast Asia to its arrival in Puerto Rico, introduced by the Spanish in 1520. The pamphlet narrates facts about sugarcane production in the islands of Puerto Rico and also includes a description of the types of sugarcane grown here and their most important characteristics.
Only available in Spanish.
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